Clarithromycin is sold under the trademark Biaxin is an antibiotic used to treat various bacterial infektsiy.Eto includes acute pharyngitis, pneumonia, skin infections, H. Pylori infections, and Lyme disease among drugih.Klaritromitsin can be taken orally as a pill or liquid.
Common side effects include nausea, vomiting, headaches, and allergic reactions are ponos.Tyazhelye redko.Problemy liver postupalo.Eto can cause harm if taken during beremennosti.Imenno in the class of macrolides and works by stopping the production of a protein by certain bacteria
Clarithromycin was developed in 1980 in the list godu World Health Organization basic drugs, the most important medicines required in the basic system zdravoohraneniya.Klaritromitsin available as common medication.
Clarithromycin is primarily used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including: pneumonia, Helicobacter Pylori and as alternatives to penicillin anginy.Drugie applications include: cat scratch disease and other infections caused by Bartonella, cryptosporidiosis, as second-line agent for Lyme disease and toksoplazmoz.On can also be used to prevent bacterial endocarditis in people who can not take penicillin.
Prevotella melaninogenica (formerly Bacteroides melaninogenicus)
Clarithromycin should not be used in people with a history of cholestatic jaundice and / or liver dysfunction associated with prior use of clarithromycin.
Use of clarithromycin with the following medications: cisapride, pimozide, astemizole, terfenadine, ergotamine or dihydroergotamine is not recommended
Do not use with colchicine in people with renal or hepatic insufficiency.
Concomitant use of cholesterol drugs such as lovastatin or simvastatin.
Hypersensitivity to clarithromycin, or any component of the product, or any erythromycin macrolide antibiotics.
QT prolongation or ventricular cardiac arrhythmia, including a pirouette.
The most common side effects are gastrointestinal diarrhea (3%), nausea (3%), abdominal pain (3%) and vomiting (6%) It can also cause headaches, insomnia, and abnormal liver function tests.. Allergic reactions include rash and anafilaksii.Menee common side effects (<1%) include extreme irritability, hallucinations (auditory and visual), illness dizziness / movement and change in the senses of smell and taste, including a metallic taste in rtu.Suhost mouth, panic attacks and nightmares have also been reported, although less frequently.
Clarithromycin can lead to long interval QT.U syndrome patients with long intervals QT, heart disease, or patients taking other interval QT, prolonging drug, it may increase the risk of developing life-threatening arrhythmias.
In one study, the use of short-term treatment with clarithromycin was associated with an increase in the number of deaths classified as sudden cardiac death in patients with stable coronary heart disease who do not use statiny.Nekotorye reports of suspected liver disease is the cause.
The liver and kidneys
Clarithromycin is known to cause jaundice, hepatic cirrhosis and kidney failure, including renal failure.
central nervous system
Common side effects of clarithromycin in the central nervous system include dizziness, headaches boli.Redko, it may cause ototoxicity, delirium and mania.
The risk of oral candidiasis, in connection with the liquidation of natural bacterial competitors yeast with antibiotics, are also incurred.
Pregnancy and breast-feeding
Clarithromycin should not be used in pregnant women except in cases where no alternative therapy is not tselesoobraznym.Klaritromitsin may cause potential hazards to the fetus, therefore, should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the nursing ploda.Dlya mothers is not known whether clarithromycin is released in breast milk.
Clarithromycin inhibits the liver enzyme, CYP3A4, is involved in the metabolism of many other commonly prescribed preparatov.Prinimaya clarithromycin with other drugs that are metabolized by CYP3A4 may result in an increase or decrease in drug levels.
Some common interactions are listed below.
Clarithromycin is observed to have dangerous interactions with colchicine as a result of the inhibition of CYP3A4 metabolism and P-glycoprotein transporta.Sochetanie these two drugs can cause fatal colchicine toxicity, especially in patients with renal insufficiency.
Taking clarithromycin simultaneously with some statins (a class of drugs used to lower cholesterol in the blood serum), increases the risk of side effects such as muscle pain and muscle break down (rhabdomyolysis).
Calcium channel blockers
Simultaneous treatment with calcium channel blockers may increase the risk of low blood pressure, renal failure, and death, as compared with calcium channel blockers paired with azithromycin, clarithromycin similar preparation, but without CYP3A4 inhibition.Administration clarithromycin in combination with verapamil observed to cause low blood pressure, low level of heart and lactic acidosis.
Clarithromycin can double the level of carbamazepine in the organism by decreasing its clearance, which can lead to toxic symptoms of carbamazepine, such as double vision, loss of body movement, nausea, and hyponatremia
Depending on the combination of drugs, clarithromycin therapy may be contraindicated, it requires changing doses of certain drugs, or be tolerated without correction doz.Naprimer clarithromycin can reduce the concentration of zidovudine.
Mechanism of action
Clarithromycin inhibits the growth of bacteria by inhibiting their synthesis belka.On binds to 23S rRNA, a component of 50S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, thus preventing the transfer of peptides.
Unlike erythromycin, clarithromycin, acid-stable, so can be ingested without the need to be protected from gastric kislot.On easily absorbed, and penetrates into most tissues and fagotsitov.Iz the high concentration in phagocytes, clarithromycin is actively transported to the site infektsii.Vo an active phagocytosis, large concentrations of clarithromycin are released, and its concentration in the tissue can be more than 10 times higher than in plazme.Naibolee high concentrations found in the liver, lung tissue and stool.
Clarithromycin has a relatively fast first-pass metabolism in pecheni.Ego major metabolites include inactive metabolite, N-desmethylclarithromycin and active metabolite, 14- (R) -hydroxyclarithromycin.Po compared with clarithromycin, 14- (R) -hydroxyclarithromycin less active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium kompleksa.Klaritromitsin (20% -40%) and its active metabolite (10% -15%) are excreted with mochoy.Iz all drugs in its class, it has a better bioavailability of clarithromycin by 50%, which makes it available for oral vvedeniya.Ego half-life of about 3 to 4 hours from 250 mg administered every 12 hours, but increased to 5 to 7 hours with 500 mg administered every 8 to 12 C.pri using any of these modes, dosing, steady-state concentration of this metabolite is usually achieved within 3 to 4 days.
Biaxin dosage for strep throat
Clarithromycin was invented by researchers at the Japanese pharmaceutical company in 1980 Taisho Pharmaceutical godu product originated by the efforts to develop a version of the antibiotic erythromycin, which is not experienced acid instability in the gastrointestinal tract, causing side effects such as nausea and pain in the filed patent protection zhivote.Taisho the drug around 1980, and then introduced a branded version of its drug, called Clarith, to the Japanese market in 1991. in 1985, Taisho partnership with the US company Abbott Laboratories for the international rights and Abbott also received FDA approval for Biaxin in October 1991. The drug went generic in Europe in 2004 and in the US in mid-2005.
Society and Culture
Clarithromycin is available as a general lekarstva.Optovaya cost is between 0.13 and 0.79 US dollars to the United States one dozu.V is moderately expensive from 50 to 100 US dollars for a course of treatment.
Biaxin dosage for strep throat
In the United States, clarithromycin available as immediate release tablets, extended release tablets, and granules for oral suspension.
Clarithromycin is available under several trademarks in many countries, for example, Binoclar, Biclar, Bioclar, Biaxin, Crixan, Claritron, Clarihexal, Clacid, Claritt, Clacee, Clarac, Clariwin, Claripen, Clarem, Claridar, fromilid, Infex, Kalixocin, Karicin, Klaricid, Klacid, Klaram, Klabax, Monoclar, Resclar, Rithmo, Truclar and Vikrol.